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The Bangladesh Liberation War was a war fought between Pakistan and Bangladesh (Back then known as East Pakistan), over Bangladeshi sovereignty and independence. With India joining the war on the side of Bangladesh. The war ended with Bangladeshi victory and independence from Pakistan. 

The causes of the struggle for independence

The British Raj came to an end in the year 1947. This led to a partition of Bengal and India, which lead to two independent states- India and Pakistan. This division happenned on the basis of religion, as the former was a majority Hindu nation, and the latter being Muslim. Pakistan had two main provinces. The first was West Pakistan (modern day Pakistan), and the second wasEast Pakistan . The liberation war iteself was focused exclusively in the former East Pakistan. There were many atrocities carried out under Pakistani rule, the first is described below.

Mother Language Riots in 1952 (মাতৃভাষা আন্দোলন, ১৯৫২)

A key issue during Pakistani rule was state language. The majority of the local population did not speak Udru, the language in the West. Most spoke in Bengali, and so, a dispute had arisen. This later on lead to the Pakistani government banning Bengali, its literature, and its use anywhere. This lead to a large outcry by local people, and this evolved from small student protests, to large-scare rioting. The events leading up to this lead to a large protest on February 21st, 1952, which lasted for several days, and calls for independence from Pakistan.

Another uprising in 1969 (১৯৬৯ এর গণঅভ্যুত্থান)

Further killings of people and looting evolved into even larger riots, with renewed causes for indpendence. This time however, people started to organise, the government in Pakistan later hardended its grip.

1970 Pakistani general election ('৭০ সালের পাকিস্তানি সাধারণ নির্বাচন)

THIS WAS THE LAST STRAW! After elections were rigged, and plans for an autonomus Bengal had failed, people ended up taking arms, and fleeing the country, knwoing that war would come. Most had either died in the genocide during the war, or as refugees while fleeing.

One of the main means of motivation of people to the confilct and also towards independence was literature which was used as a tonic to unite people- including other countries of the world, towards independece. Modern Bengali literature had gone through a rebirth during this period, and furthermore afterwards.


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