Relations and opinions
Other French colonyballs
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Europeans first arrived in Brazilball in April 1500, when a fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral on behalf of the Portuguese crown arrived in present-day Porto Seguro, Bahia. Except for Salvadorball (the first Brazilian capital city) and São Vicenteball (the first Portuguese settlement), however, the territory still remained largely unexplored half a century later.
Early French involvement with Brazil
Jean Cousin has been said to have discovered the New World in 1488, four years before Christopher Columbus, when he landed in Brazilball around the mouth of the Amazon, but this remains unproven. His travels were succeeded by that of Binot Paulmier de Gonneville in 1504 onboard L'Espoir, which was properly recorded and brought back a Native American person named Essomericq. Gonneville affirmed that when he visited Brazilball, French traders from Saint-Malo and Dieppe had already been trading there for several years.
Kingdom of Franceball continued to trade with Portuguese Empireball, especially loading Brazilwood (Pau-Brasil), for its use as a red dye for textiles. In 1550, in the royal entry for Henry II of France, at Rouen, about fifty men depicted naked Indians and a battle between the Tupinamba allies of the French, and the Tabajaras Indians.
On November 1, 1555, French vice-admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon (1510–1575), a Catholic knight of the Order of Maltaball, who later would help the Huguenots to find a refuge against persecution, led a small fleet of two ships and 600 soldiers and colonists, and took possession of the small island of Serigipe in the Guanabara Bay, in front of present-day Rio de Janeiroball, where they built a fort named Fort Coligny. The fort was named in honor of Gaspard de Coligny (then a Catholic statesman, that about a year later would become a Huguenot), an admiral who supported the expedition and would later use the colony in order to protect his Reformed co-religionists.
To the still largely undeveloped mainland village, Villegaignon gave the name of Henriville, in honour of Henry II, the King of Franceball, who also knew of and approved the expedition, and had provided the fleet for the trip. Villegaignon secured his position by making an alliance with the Tamoio and Tupinambá Indians of the region, who were fighting the Portuguese.
1557 Calvinist arrival
Unchallenged by the Portuguese Empireball, who initially took little notice of his landing, Villegaignon endeavoured to expand the colony by calling for more colonists in 1556. He sent one of his ships, the Grande Roberge, to Honfleur, entrusted with letters to King Henry II, Gaspard de Coligny and according to some accounts, the Protestant leader John Calvin.
After one ship was sent to France to ask for additional support, three ships were financed and prepared by the king of Franceball and put under the command of Sieur De Bois le Comte, a nephew of Villegaignon. They were joined by 14 Calvinists from Geneva, led by Philippe de Corguilleray, including theologians Pierre Richier and Guillaume Chartrier. The new colonists, numbering around 300, included 5 young women to be wed, 10 boys to be trained as translators, as well as 14 Calvinists sent by Calvin, and also Jean de Léry, who would later write an account of the colony. They arrived in March 1557. The relief fleet was composed of:
The Petite Roberge, with 80 soldiers and sailors was led by Vice Admiral Sieur De Bois le Comte. The Grande Roberge, with about 120 on board, captained by Sieur de Sainte-Marie dit l'Espine. The Rosée, with about 90 people, led by Captain Rosée.
Doctrinal disputes arose between Villegaignon and the Calvinists, especially in relation to the Eucharist, and in October 1557 the Calvinists were banished from Coligny island as a result. They settled among the Tupinamba until January 1558, when some of them managed to return to Franceball by ship together with Jean de Léry, and five others chose to return to Coligny island where three of them were drowned by Villegaignon for refusing to recant.
In 1560 Mem de Sá, the new Governor-General of Brazilball, received from the Portuguese government the command to expel the French Empireball. With a fleet of 26 warships and 2,000 soldiers, on 15 March 1560, he attacked and destroyed Fort Coligny within three days, but was unable to drive off their inhabitants and defenders, because they escaped to the mainland with the help of the Native Brazilians, where they continued to live and to work. Admiral Villegaignon had returned to Franceball in 1558, disgusted with the religious tension that existed between French Protestants and French Catholics, who had come also with the second group.
Urged by two influential Jesuit priests who had come to Brazilball with Mem de Sá, named José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega, and who had played a big role in pacifying the Tamoios, Mem de Sá ordered his nephew, Estácio de Sá to assemble a new attack force. Estácio de Sá founded the city of Rio de Janeiroball on March 1, 1565, and fought the Frenchmen for two more years. Helped by a military reinforcement sent by his uncle, on January 20, 1567, he imposed final defeat on the French forces and decisively expelled them from Brazilball, but died a month later from wounds inflicted in the battle. Coligny's and Villegaignon's dream had lasted a mere 12 years.
Largely in response to the two attempts of the Kingdom of Franceball to conquer territory in Brazilball (the other one was named France Équinoxiale and occupied present-day São Luís, state of Maranhão), between 1612 and 1615, the Portuguese crown decided to expand its colonization efforts in Brazilball.
|States||Acreball • Alagoasball • Amapáball • Amazonasball • Bahiaball • Cearáball • Distrito Federalball • Espírito Santoball • Goiásball • Maranhãoball • Mato Grossoball • Mato Grosso do Sulball • Minas Geraisball • Paráball • Paraíbaball • Paranáball • Pernambucoball • Piauíball • Rio de Janeiroball • Rio Grande do Norteball • Rio Grande do Sulball • Rondôniaball • Roraimaball • Santa Catarinaball • São Pauloball • Sergipeball • Tocantinsball|
|Former entities||Migrants from North (Ancient South Americans) • Tupi-Guaraniball • Portuguese Brazilball ( Kingdom of Portugalball) • Dutch Brazilball ( Dutch Republicball) • Kingdom of Brazilball ( United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves) • Brazilian Empireball|
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