Italian Regency of Carnaroball was a self-proclaimed Authoritarian italophile state in Carnaro seeking recognition to join the Kingdom of Italy.
During the Great War, Kingdom of Italyball made a pact with the Entente and was promised with the Treaty of London to reclaim back Italian lands, except it was only Istriaball and Triesteball, not the city of Rijekaball, instead it joined with the Kingdom of Yugoslaviaball, and so, an angered nationalist that went by the name of Gabriele D'Annunzio led an army of composed of shellshocked nationalist and irredentist soldiers from the twelve battles at the Isonzo river came marching to the city in the 12 September of 1919, forcing out the interallied soldiers, creating the Endeavor of Fiume (Impresa di Fiume).
D'Annunzio claimed he annexed Fiume for the Kingdom of Italyball. And so he was welcomed by the Italians of Fiume, however Kingdom of Italyball's government denied this claim and so D'Annunzio resisted pressure from the Kingdom itself. The plotters got a blockade from Kingdom of Italyball, demanding that Carnaro must surrender, and so, they were called as the "Vanguardist deserters" (Disertori in avanti).
Against the modus vivendi
Dcember 8, 2 months after the withdrawal of the troops, Kingdom of Italyball proposed a 'modus vivendi' recognizing Carnaro's "desire for annexation and promising they would "only consider acceptable a solution consonant with that which Fiume declared to desire.", on 11 December and 12 December, d'Annunzio met with Pietro Badoglio to try and obtain more concessions. Badoglio refused, and d'Annunzio said he would submit the modus vivendi to the Italian National Council of Fiume. The National Council accepted the proposal on December 15.
After the National Council's decision, d'Annunzio addressed a crowd of five thousand people and incited them to rejected the modus vivendi, promising to put the issue to a referendum. The referendum was held on December 18, and despite violence and irregularities the results were overwhelmingly in favour of the modus vivendi. D'Annunzio nullified the results, blaming the violence at the polls, and announced he would make the final decision himself. He ultimately rejected the modus vivendi against the Kingdom of Italyball for doubts.
Carta del Carnaro and Reggenza
A year after the withdrawal and creation, D'Annunzio created the of Carnaro, a constitution created with liberal, democratic republican, anarchist, syndicalist and protofascist ideals, also claiming that music will be a core part of the Regency itself, as it was a 'socio-religious institution', created with the helps of Italian syndicalist De Ambris providing the legal political framework, along with D'Annunzio's poet skills. Every morning D'Annunzio will read poetry and manifestos from his balcony, every evening a concert, then fireworks. This made up the entire activity of Carnaro.
D'Annunzio proclaimed the city to be under the Italian Regency of Carnaro with a constitution foreshadowing some of the later Fascist Italy's system, with himself as dictator, with the title of Comandante.
The only nation to recognise this place was however the USSR as Carnaro recognised them too.
Artists, bohemians, adventurers, anarchists, fugitives and stateless refugees, homosexuals, military dandies, army mutineers, and crank reformers of every stripe (including Buddhists, Theosophists and Vedantists) joined to the party in Fiume on droves.
The constitution established a corporatist state, with nine corporations to represent the different sectors of the economy, where membership was mandatory, plus a symbolic tenth corporation devised by d'Annunzio, to represent the "superior individuals" (e.g. poets, "heroes" and "supermen"), the executive power would be vested in seven ministers and the legislative power was vested in a bicameral legislature. Joint sessions of both councils (Arengo del Carnaro), would be responsible for treaties with foreign powers, amendments to the constitution, and appointment of a dictator in times of emergency.
End of the Regency and Legacy
While lasting atleast 2 years, with stamps, a stable force, and concerts, the approval of a treaty that manage to make Free State of Fiumeball to solve disputes between the young Kingdom of Yugoslaviaball and Kingdom of Italyball, Carnaro ignored this treaty and so declared war against Kingdom of Italyball, which didn't end nicely as on 24 December, the Italian army and a bombardment by the Royal Italian Navy forced the Fiuman legionnaires to evacuate and surrender the city.
Fiume, however, didn't last very long as it was annexed by Fascist Italy on 1924, creating the Province of Carnaro.
The system it went by became otherwise known and adopted by Fascist Italyball known as 'Fascism', adapting stuff from Carnaro, these included the balcony address, the Roman salute, the warcries taken from the Achilles' cry in the Iliad, the dramatic and rhetorical dialogue with the crowd, and the use of religious symbols in new secular settings. It also included his method of government in Fiume: the economics of the corporate state; stage tricks; large emotive nationalistic public rituals; and blackshirted followers, the Arditi, with their disciplined, bestial responses and strongarm repression of dissent.