In 1814, the Austrians confirmed their claims to the territories of the former Lombard Duchy of Milanball , which had been ruled by the Habsburgs since 1718 and together with the adjacent Duchy of Mantuaball by the tree branch of the dynasty from 1713 to 1796, and of the former Republic of Veniceball which had been under Austrian rule intermittently upon the 1797 Treaty of Campo Fornio.
The Congress of Vienna combined these lands into a single kingdom, ruled by the Habsburg in personal union; The Austrian emperor was represented day-to-day by appointed viceroys by the Imperial Court in Vienna and resident in Milan and Venice.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was first ruled by the Emperor from 1815 to his death in 1835. His son ruled from 1835 to 1848. In Milan on 6 September 1838 he became the last king to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. The crown was subsequently brought to Vienna after the loss of Lombardy in 1859, but was restored to Italy after the loss of Venetia in 1866.
Though the local administration was Italian in language and staff, the Austrian authorities had to cope with the Risorgimento movement. After a popular revolution on 22 March 1848, known as the "Five Days of Milan", the Austrians fled from , which became the capital city of a Governo Provvisorio della Lombardia (Lombardy Provisional Government). The next day, also rose against the Austrian rule, forming the Venice Provisional Government. The Austrian forces, after defeating the Sardinian troops at the Battle of Custoza, entered Milan and Veniceand once again restored Austrian rule.
Emperor Franz Joseph I ruled over the Kingdom for the rest of its existence, which lost Lombardy to Second French Empireball (Which later granted it to Kingdom of Italyball) , and at last, Venice and Mantua were conquered by Prussiaball, which also granted it to Kingdom of Italyball.