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Ceterum autem censeo Carthaginem esse delendam!
 
— Cato the Elder, [1]

Punic Wars was a growing conflict between Carthageball and Roman Republicball for the control of the western basins of the Mediterranean Sea, which resulted in roman victory and the destruction of Carthage. The three disputes had some of the most lethal battles in history, several cities destroyed, over 300,000 prisoners held hostages as well as devastating natural disasters.

First Punic War (265 - 241 BC)

In 265 BC, a group of Mamertines (mercenaries) from Messinaball was being teased by Greek Syracuseball. They asked for aid from Carthageball but soon betrayed them and enlisted the help of the Roman Senate; Carthage then sided with Syracuseball.

The Roman Republic eventually forced Syracuse to join them against the Punics, and gained a victory in the Battle of Agrigento. Carthage then decided to fight its battles at the sea, in which they had an advantage. They successfully repulsed Roman attacks in Corsica and Sardinia. Rome launched a large fleet from southern Sicily, which the Punic Navy intercepted in the lagest naval battle in history. The Roman Navy won and proceeded until invading North Africa. The Carthaginians were defeated and sued for peace, but the proposed terms were too harsh, so they counterattacked and kicked the invaders. A naval squad was sent from Italy to the rescue, but Carthage's Navy challenged them (and lost). However the fleet was almost completely devastated in a storm while returning to the country.

In 255 BC, Carthage recaptured Agrigento, but not believing they could hold the city for long, they sacked and abandoned it. Romans rebuilt their fleet and captured Palermo in northern Sicily in 254, followed by a failed Carthaginian attempt to recover the city in 251. In 249 the romans occupied the extreme west of Sicily, gaining full control over the island. Carthage was finally beated in 241 BC in the Battle of Aegates Islands and negotiated for peace. As a result, Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia were annexed as Roman Provinces.

Second Punic War (218 - 201 BC)

The second conflict was Carthage's attempt to recover its lost territories with an enforced army. It began in 219 BC when general Hannibal occupied the town of Seguntum, renamed as Garthago Nova or Cartagena. After that, the army received reinforcements by Gallic tribes and marched their elephants across the Swiss Alps all the way to Italy, and invading the northern part of the peninsula after a victory in the battle across Trebia river (218 BC) and Lake Trasimenus (217 BC).


Several times, the Carthaginian Navy launched amphibian attacks on Sicily and Southern Italy from 215 to 210. Eventually, the Roman legions recovered positions and kicked the invaders. The decisive turntables began when commander Scipio Africanus occupied Iberia. The Grand Army then proceded to North Africa and  besieged the city of Utica. Carthage was forced to abandon many of its enclaves and colonies to reinforce the weakened troops, but were defeated in the Battle of Zama on inland Tunisia; the war ended in 201 and the Punics had to pay large reparations from the hundreds of thousands of POWs they had aprisoned or executed. The indebted Carthaginian Empire became a client state of the Roman Senate.

Third Punic War (149 - 146 BC)

In 150 BC, Carthage's long time enemy Numidian tribal states attacked the western border, and Carthage responded with another attack. This offensive was unauthorised by the city's sovereign party, the Roman Senate, which offered two options for its vassal: either pay a large fine or contribute with 300 slaves. Carthage denied both, and the Third Punic War ensued with a Roman intervention in Utica. Rome's legions led by consuls Manilius and Censorius tried to besiege Carthage but were repulsed by general Hasdrubal and his cavalry.


For three years the legions attacked the several Punic holds in the continent, sometimes being ambushed by Hasdrubal's men. Many legionnaries deserted in the expeditions since they weren't familiar with the terrain. In 146 Scipio Aemilianus finally destroyed the Punic Capital and enslaved its 40 thousand inhabitants. Shortly after, Rome led a thirty year campaign against Carthage's former ally Macedonian Empire, and The Senate had conquered the Balkan peninsula and the Levant.


Only in 30 BC, Julius Caesar conspired against Cleopatra and peacefully annexed Egypt as a province of His Empire, giving Rome complete control over the Mediterranean basin. For the next 400 years, Rome has ruled the entire known world and was considered The Greatest City in the Universe-icon Universe!


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