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Roma Invicta!
Heyyy... said the Romans, eating the entire Mediterranean for breakfast
 
— Bill Wurtz
LEGIO, AETERNA, AETERNA, VICTRIX!
 
— Roman legionnaires marching to Jerusalem

The Roman Empireball, also known as the Ancient Romeball, or SPQRball, Roman Republicball (until 27 BC) and Roman Kingdomball (until 503 BC) was the mightiest Classical Age Empire in Europe and arguably the world.

The history of the Ancient Romeball spans a very long time from 753 BC to 476 AD. As such, Ancient Romeball was one of the longest lasting empireballs in history. There are countless battles and wars that were waged. Political intrigue, tales of heroism, romance and betrayal.

The Roman Empireball was one of the largest empires in history on Earth-icon.png Earthball. Roman Empire spanned an incredible 5 million square kilometers at its zenith in 117 AD. It covered most of Europe, North-Africa and the Middle-East. The Roman Empire was the only country in history that completely controlled the Mediterranean Sea and all the coastal areas around it. They called it Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea").

Travel was very slow on horses and carriages. So it took months to travel from one end to the other side of Romeball. Its capital city was Rome-icon.png Rome. There's a saying "all roads lead to Rome", because the roads radiated outward from Rome into Europe.

The cultural and technological achievements of Ancient Romeball were one of the greatest in antiquity and human history. It build breathtaking cities with colloseums , Roman aquaducts , amphitheatre. Its de facto official language was Latin. When Romeball conquered Greece-icon.png Ancient Greeceball it incorporated much of its culture such as art, painting, sculture, historiography, parts of its religion.

Romanball liked various kinds of entertainment. Most notable are gladiator armed combat in Colloseums to entertain the Roman audiences. Most gladiators were slaves and schooled under harsh conditions. The battles were often between gladiators, animals and convicted criminals.

Romanball was religious. They worshipped multiple gods. It believed in Hellenism-icon.png Hellenism, Nicene-icon.png Niceneball, and later Chalcedonism-icon.png Chalcedonismball.

Romeball had many different Emperors. Some were kind hearted and others ruthless and corrupt. The most famous are Emperor Augustus and Julius Ceasar. There are a great many tales about their lives and actions.

Romeball was admired and feared by its enemies. It had one of the finest, well equiped and most disciplined military forces in antiquity. They protected its borders and kept order in its diverse society. Ancient Romeball beat most of the barbarians it encountered and incorporated them into its glorious empire. After defeating its biggest rival Carthage-icon.png Carthageball, it became the uncontested ruler of the Mediterranean Sea and all the surrounding land.

It despised the uncivilized barbarians outside its long borders. When Ancient Romeball conquered new lands it added millions of slaves and citizens to the empire. This made the population very diverse. The social struture was very rigid. It was based on heredity, property, wealth, citizenship and freedom. There was a pathway to becoming a Roman citizen, but it had to be earned.

The Imperial Roman army was one of the best in Antiquity. but it weakened after numerous succession crises and foreign invasions and in the end, they weren't able to defend against Germania-icon.png people with pointy sticks. Thereafter it disintegrated but continued as the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.

Ancient Romeball doesn't exist anymore, but it has an everlasting legacy that influenced western civilization. Many countries still speak Latin related languages. Many Roman ruins are still in South Europe and some parts of the Middle-East near the Mediterranean Sea. ​Italy-icon.png Italyball and the capital of Rome still has many thousands year old ruins of the once glorious Roman Empire. For example the Colloseum and Amphitheare and the Pantheon.

History

{this page is being edited to make it more accurate so pls dont change it :)}

Founding the city

According to legend, the city of Rome was founded by 2 brothers, Romulus and Remus. It was founded by Romulus and Remus as gratitude to the she-wolf that took care of them when they're abandoned by their parents. To return the favor, the twins built a settlement on the spot where they were found by the she-wolf, which gradually evolved to the city of Rome.

However, the 2 brothers fought who get to rule the city, in the end, Romulus killed Remus, and declared himself king of Rome. His kingdom existed from 753 B.C(the date that according to legend, the twins founded the city) up to 509 B.C, the year that the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ("Tarquin the Proud") was expelled from Rome. The kingdom ended when Tarquin's son, Sextus Tarquinus raped a noblewoman named Lucretia, who afterwards commited suicide. His father and husband was angry, and Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus joined the two and mustered an army. They also gained political support from the senate and their army expelled the king and his son out of Rome.

The Republic

After deposing Tarquinus and his rapist son out of Rome. Lucius Junius Brutus decided to develop a new system of government in which magistrates were annually elected and various representative were established. A constitution was also established and there are 2 very important magistrates called consuls. Consuls had the power to command armies and also exercised governmental powers.

Other magistrates of the Republic include tribunes, quaestors, aediles, praetors and censors. The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, or plebeians. Republican voting assemblies included the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly), which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly), which elected less important offices.

In the 4th century however, the Gauls from France attacked Rome. The Romans hastily gathered an army and met the Gauls, however, the Gauls kicked the Romans in the ass and rushed to the mighty city. Many citizens already fled the city but others stayed on the Capitoline Hill for one last stand. The Gauls sacked and plundered the city then advanced to the hill. The siege lasted for 7 months and diplomacy finally repelled the invaders when they agreed to take 1,000 pounds of gold in exchange for peace. According to a legend however, the Romans saw the Gauls were using fake scales and armed up, defeating them.

Rome gradually began to expand their borders, starting from Italy. They managed to subdue all of Italy, except for the south, which were settled by Greek colonists. Tarentum(Taranto) sought aid from King Pyrrhus of Epirus to halt Roman expansion and although Pyrrhus managed to kick the Romans in the ass(at the cost of heavy casualties), Pyrrhus was ultimately defeated in Beneventum(275 B.C) and later, in the Messina Strait(276 B.C) by Carthage-icon.png Carthage(later Rome's greatest rival). After defeating the Greeks, the Romans copied their strategy and developed colonias(colonies) at strategic points.

Before the half of the 3rd century B.C even passed by, Rome met another "pain in the ass" and the enemy's name is Carthage. The First War began when the city of Messana asked military support from Carthage as they're attacked by Syracuse(Greek city). The Carthaginians intervened and after punching the Syracusans, Messana sent an envoy to Rome, requesting military support to fuck up Carthage out of Sicily. Rome prepared a military expedition to help the Messanans.

The Romans were expert in land warfare but their navy is shit. This problems made it challenging for the Romans to catch up with Carthaginian power as they excelled in both. However, after 2 decades, they finally landed a decisive blow and Carthage signed a treaty with them, unlike their next treaty, this wasn't as harsh as the next as they only lose their Mediterranean islands.

However, after a few decades, the Second War broke out and in this war, Roman weakness were brutally exposed by the Carthaginians. Under Hannibal Barca, the Phoenicians and their allies fucked the Romans and their foederati too hard. Carthage's mighty army under Hannibal crossed the Alps and started his campaign in Italy, where he again kicked Rome in the ass. Despite this success, many of his men died in disease and battle and also, the Romans implemented guerilla warfare style tactics(basically the user who of the guerilla tactics will avoid direct battle and instead wear down the enemy through ambushes, sabotages, attrition, deny them supplies, etc.). Despite Fabius(the one who proposed to use guerilla tactics)' strategy gained controversy as the Romans were known to beat their enemies directly in the battlefield. This factors, as well as supply lines being stretched thin and also lack of men forced Hannibal to halt his campaign and can't capture Rome because of this.

While delaying Hannibal's powerful army however, the Romans were slowly rebuilding their army. In the final stages of the war, Scipio(later best known for his cognomen "Africanus") defeated Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal in Hispania(Spain). With no army to protect Carthaginian Africa and Hannibal stuck in Italy, the Senate ordered Scipio to attack Italy. Hannibal quickly rushed to protect Carthage and in 202 B.C, Scipio finally fucked Carthage's army in Zama, ending the war.

Their new terms in the new treaty were harsh. In exchange of having peace, the Romans acquire Hispania, Sicily and any other Mediterranean territories and was forced to recognize Numidian independence, but the worse of all, Carthage was prohibited to raise an army so that a war could be prevented. Rome's African bitch, Numidia, exploited this treaty by constantly raiding and seizing Carthaginian property to show off in the known world how little Carthage can protect their territories. In order to teach their former bitch a lesson, Carthage raised an army under Hasdrubal(not Hannibal's brother) but was utterly defeated. Rome used this as pretext to war and sacked Carthage in 146 B.C.

Late Republic

After defeating the Macedonian and Seleucid Empires in the 2nd century BC, the Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean Sea. The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms brought the Roman and Greek cultures in closer contact and the Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. At this time Rome was a consolidated empire—in the military view—and had no major enemies. Foreign dominance led to internal strife. Senators became rich at the provinces' expense; soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land; and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work.

Income from war booty, mercantilism in the new provinces, and tax farming created new economic opportunities for the wealthy, forming a new class of merchants, called the equestrians. The lex Claudia forbade members of the Senate from engaging in commerce, so while the equestrians could theoretically join the Senate, they were severely restricted in political power. The Senate squabbled perpetually, repeatedly blocked important land reforms and refused to give the equestrian class a larger say in the government.

Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. Both brothers were killed and the Senate passed reforms reversing the Gracchi brother's actions. This led to the growing divide of the plebeian groups(populares) and equestrian classes(optimates).

Marian Reforms

Gaius Marius was a Roman military general and statesman. After defeating Rome's enemies, including the Numidians in Africa and Celtic and Germanic tribes in Europe, he became consul for an unprecedented 7 times during his career. In the late 2nd century B.C, Rome's military and logistical strength declined due to centuries of warfare and the consuls didn't initiate military reforms. Because he was a general and the republic were faced by some scary bastards, Marius initiated military reforms which was now called, the "Marian Reforms".

First, Marius revamped the organization of the Roman army, instead of relying on their client states, militia groups and foederati, he decided to make it more professional, permanent and dynamic. He then next introduced 2 units, the cohorts and the legions. Each cohort contains 480-500 soldiers and 10 cohorts make a legion, making each legion contain 4,800-5,000 men. He also changed the military equipment of the Roman Army, instead of using hasta(Latin for spear), the legionaries instead use the pilum(a type of throwing spear where when thrown, the sharp part of the pilum will split off from the wooden part, rendering it unusable and it cannot be thrown back by the enemy). He also made the state supply each soldier their own weapons because before the reforms, each soldier is required to but their own equipment, which was expensive.

The third reform that Marius was able to introduce was legislation that offered retirement benefits in the form of land grants. Members of the head count who had completed their term of service would be given a pension by their general and a plot of land in the conquered region on which to retire. Officers and commanders were given monetary rewards that were 10 to 25 times greater than that of a common foot soldier.

Finally, Marius granted citizens of the Italian allies (Etruria, Picenum, etc.) full Roman citizenship if they fought for Rome and completed a period of service in the Roman army.

After Marius's retirement, Rome had a brief peace, during which the Italian socii ("allies" in Latin) requested Roman citizenship and voting rights. The reformist Marcus Livius Drusus supported their legal process but was assassinated, and the socii revolted against the Romans in the Social War. At one point both consuls were killed; Marius was appointed to command the army together with Lucius Julius Caesar and Sulla.

By the end of the Social War, Marius and Sulla were the premier military men in Rome and their partisans were in conflict, both sides jostling for power. In 88 BC, Sulla was elected for his first consulship and his first assignment was to defeat Mithridates VI of Pontus, whose intentions were to conquer the Eastern part of the Roman territories. However, Marius's partisans managed his installation to the military command, defying Sulla and the Senate, and this caused Sulla's wrath. To consolidate his own power, Sulla conducted a surprising and illegal action: he marched to Rome with his legions, killing all those who showed support to Marius's cause and impaling their heads in the Roman Forum. In the following year, 87 BC, Marius, who had fled at Sulla's march, returned to Rome while Sulla was campaigning in Greece. He seized power along with the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna and killed the other consul, Gnaeus Octavius, achieving his seventh consulship. In an attempt to raise Sulla's anger, Marius and Cinna revenged their partisans by conducting a massacre.

Marius died in 86 BC, due to age and poor health, just a few months after seizing power. Cinna exercised absolute power until his death in 84 BC. Sulla after returning from his Eastern campaigns, had a free path to reestablish his own power. In 83 BC he made his second march in Rome and began a time of terror: thousands of nobles, knights and senators were executed. Sulla also held two dictatorships and one more consulship, which began the crisis and decline of Roman Republic.

Caesar and the First Triumvirate

In the mid-1st century BC, Roman politics were restless. Political divisions in Rome became identified with two groupings, populares (who hoped for the support of the people) and optimates (the "best", who wanted to maintain exclusive aristocratic control). Sulla overthrew all populist leaders and his constitutional reforms removed powers (such as those of the tribune of the plebs) that had supported populist approaches. Meanwhile, social and economic stresses continued to build; Rome had become a metropolis with a super-rich aristocracy, debt-ridden aspirants, and a large proletariat often of impoverished farmers. The latter groups supported the Catilinarian conspiracy—a resounding failure, since the consul Marcus Tullius Cicero quickly arrested and executed the main leaders of the conspiracy.

Onto this turbulent scene emerged Gaius Julius Caesar, from an aristocratic family of limited wealth. His aunt Julia was Marius' wife, and Caesar identified with the populares. To achieve power, Caesar reconciled the two most powerful men in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, who had financed much of his earlier career, and Crassus' rival, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (anglicized as Pompey), to whom he married his daughter. He formed them into a new informal alliance including himself, the First Triumvirate ("three men"). This satisfied the interests of all three: Crassus, the richest man in Rome, became richer and ultimately achieved high military command; Pompey exerted more influence in the Senate; and Caesar obtained the consulship and military command in Gaul. So long as they could agree, the three were in effect the rulers of Rome.

In 54 BC, Caesar's daughter, Pompey's wife, died in childbirth, unraveling one link in the alliance. In 53 B.C, Crassus, with 7 legions under his command, invaded the Parthian Empire but was kicked in the ass by the Parthian cavalry, under the command of Surena and Crassus didn't survive the battle. The death of Crassus soured relations between Pompey and Caesar as Crassus was the mediator between the 2 powerful figures and without him, the two generals manoeuvred against each other for power. Caesar finally conquered Gaul and managed to obtain vast wealth, respect in Rome and the loyalty of battle-hardened legions. the loyalty of battle-hardened legions. He also became a clear menace to Pompey and was loathed by many optimates. Confident that Caesar could be stopped by legal means, Pompey's party tried to strip Caesar of his legions, a prelude to Caesar's trial, impoverishment, and exile.

Wanting to keep his loyal legions by his side, Caesar and his legions crossed the Rubicon river and marked the start of Caesar's Civil War. Pompey and his supporters fled Rome and Caesar chased them down. Pompey suffered a defeat against Caesar in Pharsalus(48 B.C). Caesar's offensives against the optimates killed its big figures, including Metellus Scipio, Cato the Younger, and Pompey's son, Gnaeus Pompeius. Pompey fled to Egypt but he was murdered there. Caesar was now pre-eminent over Rome, attracting the bitter enmity of many aristocrats. He was granted many offices and honours. In just five years, he held four consulships, two ordinary dictatorships, and two special dictatorships: one for ten years and another for perpetuity. He was murdered in 44 BC, on the Ides of March by the Liberatores.

Octavian and the Second Triumvirate

Caesar's murder caused a political turmoil in Rome. For a while, the city was managed by his friend, Marcus Antonius or Mark Antony.

Soon afterward, Octavius, whom Caesar adopted through his will, arrived in Rome. Octavian (historians regard Octavius as Octavian due to the Roman naming conventions) tried to align himself with the Caesarian faction. In 43 BC, along with Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Caesar's best friend, he legally established the Second Triumvirate. This alliance would last for five years. Upon its formation, 130–300 senators were executed, and their property was confiscated, due to their supposed support for the Liberatores.

In 42 B.C, Octavian and Antony defeated both Caesar's assassins and the leaders of the Liberatores, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, in the Battle of Philippi. The Second Triumvirate was marked by the proscriptions of many senators and equites: after a revolt led by Antony's brother Lucius Antonius, more than 300 senators and equites involved were executed on the anniversary of the Ides of March, although Lucius was spared. The Triumvirate proscribed several important men, including Cicero, whom Antony hated; Quintus Tullius Cicero, the younger brother of the orator; and Lucius Julius Caesar, cousin and friend of the acclaimed general, for his support of Cicero. However, Lucius was pardoned, perhaps because his sister Julia had intervened for him.

The Triumvirate divided the Empire among the triumvirs: Lepidus was given charge of Africa, Antony, the eastern provinces, and Octavian remained in Italia and controlled Hispania and Gaul. The Second Triumvirate expired in 38 BC but was renewed for five more years. However, the relationship between Octavian and Antony had deteriorated, and Lepidus was forced to retire in 36 BC after betraying Octavian in Sicily. By the end of the Triumvirate, Antony was living in Ptolemaic Egypt, an independent and rich kingdom ruled by Antony's lover, Cleopatra VII. Antony's affair with Cleopatra was seen as an act of treason, since she was queen of another country. Additionally, Antony adopted a lifestyle considered too extravagant and Hellenistic for a Roman statesman. Following Antony's Donations of Alexandria, which gave to Cleopatra the title of "Queen of Kings", and to Antony's and Cleopatra's children the regal titles to the newly conquered Eastern territories, war between Octavian and Antony broke out. Octavian annihilated Egyptian and Roman(loyal to Antony) forces in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Now Egypt was conquered by the Roman Empire, and for the Romans, a new era had begun.

Empire/Principate

Before the Nerva sat on the throne, the Roman Emperor wasn't really an emperor, rather a princeps(Latin of "First Citizen").

In 27 BC and at the age of 36, Octavian was the sole Roman leader. In that year, he took the name Augustus. That event is usually taken by historians as the beginning of Roman Empire—although Rome was an "imperial" state since 146 BC, when Carthage was razed by Scipio Aemilianus and Greece was conquered by Lucius Mummius. Officially, the government was republican, but Augustus assumed absolute powers. His reform of the government brought about a two-century period colloquially referred to by Romans as the Pax Romana.

The Julio-Claudian dynasty was established by Augustus. The emperors of this dynasty were: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero. The dynasty is so-called due to the gens Julia, family of Augustus, and the gens Claudia, family of Tiberius. The Julio-Claudians started the destruction of republican values, but on the other hand, they boosted Rome's status as the central power in the world. While Caligula and Nero are usually remembered as dysfunctional emperors in popular culture, Augustus and Claudius are remembered as emperors who were successful in politics and the military. This dynasty instituted imperial tradition in Rome and frustrated any attempt to reestablish a Republic.

Augustus gathered almost all the republican powers under his official title, princeps: he had powers of consul, princeps senatus, aedile, censor and tribune—including tribunician sacrosanctity. This was the base of an emperor's power. Augustus also styled himself as Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar divi filius, "Commander Gaius Julius Caesar, son of the deified one". With this title he not only boasted his familial link to deified Julius Caesar, but the use of Imperator signified a permanent link to the Roman tradition of victory.

He also diminished the Senatorial class influence in politics by boosting the equestrian class. The senators lost their right to rule certain provinces, like Egypt; since the governor of that province was directly nominated by the emperor. The creation of the Praetorian Guard and his reforms in the military, creating a standing army with a fixed size of 28 legions, ensured his total control over the army. Compared with the Second Triumvirate's epoch, Augustus' reign as princeps was very peaceful. This peace and richness (that was granted by the agrarian province of Egypt) led the people and the nobles of Rome to support Augustus increasing his strength in political affairs. In military activity, Augustus was absent at battles. His generals were responsible for the field command; gaining such commanders as Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus and Germanicus much respect from the populace and the legions. Augustus intended to extend the Roman Empire to the whole known world, and in his reign, Rome conquered Cantabria, Aquitania, Raetia, Dalmatia, Illyricum and Pannonia, however, they suffered some setbacks, notably at the Teutoberg Forest where Germanic tribes ambushed Roman legions, 20,000+ legionaries died in this clash.

Under Augustus's reign, Roman literature grew steadily in what is known as the Golden Age of Latin Literature. Poets like Virgil, Horace, Ovid and Rufus developed a rich literature, and were close friends of Augustus. Along with Maecenas, he stimulated patriotic poems, as Virgil's epic Aeneid and also historiographical works, like those of Livy. The works of this literary age lasted through Roman times, and are classics. Augustus also continued the shifts on the calendar promoted by Caesar, and the month of August is named after him. Augustus brought a peaceful and thriving era to Rome, known as Pax Augusta or Pax Romana. Augustus died in 14 AD, but the empire's glory continued after his era.

The Julio-Claudians continued to rule Rome after Augustus' death and remained in power until the death of Nero in 68 AD. Augustus' favorites for succeeding him were already dead in his senescence: his nephew Marcellus died in 23 BC, his friend and military commander Agrippa in 12 BC and his grandson Gaius Caesar in 4 AD. Influenced by his wife, Livia Drusilla, Augustus appointed her son from another marriage, Tiberius, as his heir.

The Senate agreed with the succession, and granted to Tiberius the same titles and honors once granted to Augustus: the title of princeps and Pater patriae, and the Civic Crown. However, Tiberius was not an enthusiast of political affairs: after agreement with the Senate, he retired to Capri in 26 AD, and left control of the city of Rome in the hands of the praetorian prefect Sejanus (until 31 AD) and Macro (from 31 to 37 AD). Tiberius was regarded as an evil and melancholic man, who may have ordered the murder of his relatives, the popular general Germanicus in 19 AD, and his own son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD.

Tiberius died (or was killed) in 37 AD. The male line of the Julio-Claudians was limited to Tiberius' nephew Claudius, his grandson Tiberius Gemellus and his grand-nephew Caligula. As Gemellus was still a child, Caligula was chosen to rule the Empire. He was a popular leader in the first half of his reign, but became a crude and insane tyrant in his years controlling government. Suetonius states that he committed incest with his sisters, killed some men just for amusement and nominated a horse for a consulship. The Praetorian Guard murdered Caligula four years after the death of Tiberius, and, with belated support from the senators, proclaimed his uncle Claudius as the new emperor. Claudius was not as authoritarian as Tiberius and Caligula. Claudius conquered Lycia and Thrace; his most important deed was the beginning of the conquest of Britannia. Claudius was poisoned by his wife, Agrippina the Younger in 54 AD. His heir was Nero, son of Agrippina and her former husband, since Claudius' son Britannicus had not reached manhood upon his father's death.

Nero sent his general, Suetonius Paulinus, to invade modern-day Wales, where he encountered stiff resistance. The Celts in modern-day Wales were independent, tough and resistant to tax collectors and fought Paulinus, as he battled his way across from East to West. It took him a long time to reach the North West coast and in 60 AD he finally crossed the Menai Strait to the sacred island of Mona (modern-day Anglesey), the last stronghold of the Druids. His soldiers attacked the island and massacred the Druids, men, women and children, destroyed the shrine and the sacred groves and threw many of the sacred standing stones into the sea. While Paulinus and his troops were massacring Druids in Mona, the tribes of modern-day East Anglia staged a revolt led by queen Boadicea of the Iceni. The rebels sacked and burned Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium (modern-day Colchester, London and St Albans respectively) before they were crushed by Paulinus. Boadicea, like Cleopatra before her, committed suicide to avoid the disgrace of being paraded in triumph in Rome. The fault of Nero in this rebellion is debatable but there was certainly an impact (both positive and negative) upon the prestige of his regime.[citation needed]

Nero is widely known as the first persecutor of Christians and for the Great Fire of Rome, rumoured to have been started by the emperor himself. In 59 AD he murdered his mother and in 62 AD, his wife Claudia Octavia. Never very stable, he allowed his advisers to run the government while he slid into debauchery, excess, and madness. He was married three times, and had numerous affairs with both men and women, and, according to some rumors, even his mother. A conspiracy against Nero in 65 AD under Calpurnius Piso failed, but in 68 AD the armies under Julius Vindex in Gaul and Servius Sulpicius Galba in modern-day Spain revolted. Deserted by the Praetorian Guards and condemned to death by the senate, Nero killed himself.

Flavian Dynasty

The next dynasty that ascended to the throne was the Flavian Dynasty. By 68 AD, year of Nero's death, there was no chance of return to the old and traditional Roman Republic, thus a new emperor had to rise. After the turmoil in the Year of the Four Emperors, Titus Flavius Vespasianus (anglicized as Vespasian) took control of the Empire and established a new dynasty. Under the Flavians, Rome continued its expansion, and the state remained secure.

The most significant military campaign undertaken during the Flavian period, was the siege and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 by Titus. The destruction of the city was the culmination of the Roman campaign in Judea following the Jewish uprising of 66. The Second Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus's soldiers proclaimed him imperator in honor of the victory. Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish. 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon bar Giora and John of Giscala. Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, as there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God".

Vespasian was a general under Claudius and Nero. He fought as a commander in the First Jewish-Roman War along with his son Titus. Following the turmoil of the Year of the Four Emperors, in 69 AD, four emperors were enthroned: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and, lastly, Vespasian, who crushed Vitellius' forces and became emperor. He reconstructed many buildings which were uncompleted, like a statue of Apollo and the temple of Divus Claudius ("the deified Claudius"), both initiated by Nero. Buildings once destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome were rebuilt, and he revitalized the Capitol. Vespasian also started the construction of the Flavian Amphitheater, more commonly known as the Colosseum. The historians Josephus and Pliny the Elder wrote their works during Vespasian's reign. Vespasian was Josephus' sponsor and Pliny dedicated his Naturalis Historia to Titus, son of Vespasian. Vespasian sent legions to defend the eastern frontier in Cappadocia, extended the occupation in Britannia (modern-day England, Wales and southern Scotland) and reformed the tax system. He died in 79 AD.

Titus had a short-lived rule; he was emperor from 79 to 81 AD. He finished the Flavian Amphitheater, which was constructed with war spoils from the First Jewish-Roman War, and promoted games celebrating the victory over the Jews that lasted for a hundred days. These games included gladiatorial combats, chariot races and a sensational mock naval battle on the flooded grounds of the Colosseum. Titus died of fever in 81 AD, and was succeeded by his brother Domitian. As emperor, Domitian assumed totalitarian characteristics, thought he could be a new Augustus, and tried to make a personal cult of himself. Domitian ruled for fifteen years, and his reign was marked by his attempts to compare himself to the gods. He constructed at least two temples in honour of Jupiter, the supreme deity in Roman religion. He also liked to be called "Dominus et Deus" ("Master and God").

Nerva-Antonine Dynasty

The Nerva–Antonine dynasty from 96 AD to 192 AD was the rule of the emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. During their rule, Rome reached its territorial and economical apogee. This was a time of peace for Rome. The criteria for choosing an emperor were the qualities of the candidate and no longer ties of kinship; additionally, there were no civil wars or military defeats in this period. Following Domitian's murder, the Senate rapidly appointed Nerva to hold imperial dignity. This was the first time that senators chose the emperor since Octavian was honored with the titles of princeps and Augustus. Nerva had a noble ancestry, and he had served as an advisor to Nero and the Flavians. His rule restored many of the liberties once assumed by Domitian and started the last golden era of Rome.

Nerva was the first emperor of the dynasty and although his reign only lasted for 2 years, his reign laid the framework of the Pax Romana.

Nerva's successor was Trajan, a legionary of the Roman Army. His reign reached the territorial peak of the empire and during his reign, conquered Dacia and heavily campaigned against the Parthian Empire, capturing some of the Parthian's most important cities, particularly Ctesiphon and Seleucia. However, the Roman province of Mesopotamia was short-lived, as it was heavily contested between 2 great powers and Trajan wasn't able to properly managed the province. He died on 117, after suffering a stroke.

Trajan's successor, Hadrian, decided to reverse Trajan's gains and instead, assume a defensive stance against the enemies of Rome. He was particularly known for touring the empire and constructing great defensive fortifications, the most notable of this defences was the Hadrian's wall, in modern-day Britain. However, rebellions erupted throughout his reign, the most notorious of this was the Bar Kobha Revolt, where the Roman Army suffered heavy casualties, with 1 legion completely destroyed(another legion was suspected to be destroyed in this rebellion, search Legio IX Hispana for more information) and a legion(Legio X Fretensis) suffered heavy casualties.

Hadrian's successor was Antoninus Pious and like Hadrian, had a timid stance against military affairs and instead built temples, theaters, and mausoleums, promoted the arts and sciences, and bestowed honours and financial rewards upon the teachers of rhetoric and philosophy. On becoming emperor, Antoninus made few initial changes, leaving intact as far as possible the arrangements instituted by his predecessor. Antoninus expanded Roman Britannia by invading what is now southern Scotland and building the Antonine Wall. He also continued Hadrian's policy of humanizing the laws. However, the Antonine Wall was abandoned only after 8 years of construction and Antoninus died on 161 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius, known as the Philosopher, was the last of the Five Good Emperors. He was a stoic philosopher and wrote the Meditations. He defeated barbarian tribes in the Marcomannic Wars as well as the Parthian Empire. His co-emperor, Lucius Verus died in 169 AD, probably victim of the Antonine Plague, a pandemic that killed nearly five million people through the Empire in 165–180 AD.

From Nerva to Marcus Aurelius, the empire achieved an unprecedented status. The powerful influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. All the citizens enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth. The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence. The Roman senate appeared to possess the sovereign authority, and devolved on the emperors all the executive powers of government. The Five Good Emperors' rule is considered the golden era of the Empire.

On 192 A.D, Marcus Aurelius died and the Pax Romana ended. His son, Commodus succeeded him and instead of focusing on the empire's affairs, he focused much of his energy and time on gladiatorial combats. His military operations were passive and didn't led them in person.

Quotes

  • "Veni, vidi, vici" - (I came, I saw, I conquered).
  • "Roma invicta" - (Rome Unconquered. It was an inspirational motto. It refers to that Ancient Rome was never conquered)
  • “Errare humanum est” - (To err is human. Making a mistake is part of being human)
  • "Est tempus for Pax Romana!" - (It is time for Roman Peace)
  • "Victory to the Great Roman Empire!" - (said by Julius Ceasar)
  • "All Roads Lead to Rome" - (it refers to the fact that all of Rome's roads radiated outward from its capital into the Roman Empire)
  • "Hail Rome" - (a Roman greeting such as Hail Ceasar)

Relationships

Legacy

SPQRball and part of his family.

  • Byzantine-icon.png Byzantine Empireball: My direct successor(actually my manifestation but Greek version), he reconquered a part of my former empire and brought back its superpower status under the rule of Justinian I. Although his reconquests are lost, a string of successful generals ascended to the imperial purple and regain their glory and he survived for more than a millennium. Also, Roman and Byzantine culture flourished far and wide!
  • Greece-icon.png Greeceball: The filius of Byzantineball. My smart grandson who invented democracy long time ago,his father is destroyed by kebabs and he is now of very poor,I hope he recovers himself.
  • Macedonia-icon.png North Macedoniaball: WHO THE FUCK ARE YOU?! I DON'T UNDERSTAND YOUR SLAVIC BULGARIAN LANGUAGE. YOU ARE NOT HELLENIC! YOU ARE BULGARIAN YOU HERE ME! EVEN MACEDON IS PISSED OFF AT YOU!
  • Italy-icon.png Italyball: The disappointment filius of Western Roman Empireball. dare gloriam, yet grandchild. He created his own version of the Latine language... the Italian language. He has great cuisine, just like me! His food est of international recognition, especially pizza and pasta, and his clay est rich in meum historia having inherited the Italian Peninsula where meum capital Romeball and most of meum historia happened and he have great cult.
  • France-icon.png Franceball: Meum another Grandchild. She is sister of Italyball. Also created her own version of the Latine language... the French language. She has great cultura, just like me! She est the most visited countryball in the mundus, vero a pillar of civilization like Ego was a pillar of civilization in the mundus antiquorum! Her food est also well known: baguette, croissant. Just like me she cannot decide between Imperium or Res Publica. In the end she settled for Res Publica while Ego settled for Imperium.
  • Romania-icon.png Romaniaball & Moldova-icon.png Moldovaball: Meum Eastern European grandchildren. They speaks their own version of Latine, Romanian. They sunt the fratris of Franceball, Italyball and cognata of Greeceball. They have great corruptioni, just like me! umm... ok... that's not bonum... They sunt the closest in grammar to me! Preserving certain features of Vulgar Latine that other Romance languages lost, such as three genders (Masculine, Feminine and Neuter) and all six Latine cases. Their food est mostly traditional but bonum: mici, mămăligă. YOU ARE ALL NOT DACIAN YOU ARE LATIN!!!
  • Quebec-icon.png Quebecball - My Latin Son from Canada.
  • Sardinia-icon.png Sardiniaball: He est Italy's younger fratris and est meum grandchildren that Ego interested in. Ego interested in the language he speaks... it's close to Latine, the language that Ego used to speak. Grandson, Ego applaud tu for keeping a language that est almost close to mine even though it has been extinct. Hope you get along with your fratres.
  • Spain-icon.png Spainball and Portugal-icon.png Portugalball: Born during between Western Roman Empireball, Gauls and Visigoths. Also speaks their own version of Latine... the Spanish and Portuguese language. They had great Imperiums, just like me! Because of them Ego have great legatum under the form of most spoken languages in America Meridionalis! They also have great food just like me and their fratres! Paella, Tapas, Tortilla for Spainball. Bacalhau, Broa de Avintes for Portugalball
  • Brazil-icon.pngChile-icon.pngVenezuela-icon.pngArgentina-icon.png South American countryballs - grandchildren, filius of Spain-icon.png Spainball and Portugal-icon.png Portugalball. Latine yet lives! (my favorite is Brazilball because he likes me) I'm proud of them.
  • Mexico-icon.pngGuatemala-icon.pngHonduras-icon.pngEl Salvador-icon.pngNicaragua-icon.pngCosta Rica-icon.pngPanama-icon.png Mexico and Central American Countryballs - grandchildren, filius of Spain-icon.png Spainball.
  • Dominican-icon.pngCuba-icon.pngHaiti-icon.png - Caribbiean Countryballs
  • Philippines-icon.png Philippinesball - Grandson from Spainball from the Far East, Latin lives on!.
  • Eritrea-icon.png Eritreaball - The Italian Latin cultures lives on in AFRICA's red sea!
  • HRE-icon.png Holy Roman Empireball - My son? Totally not a product of rape.
  • SPQR-icon.png Saderan Empire and Septim Empire - My Grandsons from the another worlds and they has a war on their terras!

Friends

  • Han-icon.png Hanball - Hey! Thanks for your silks to me and thus trade with me! Best trading partner! And some of my soldiers lived in yuor clay! Although he let Xiongnu come!! And one day i will conquer yuo
  • Ancient Greece-icon.png Ancient Greeceball - Is complicatus.
  • Ptolemaic Egypt-icon.png Ptolemaic Egyptball - Somehow amicus.
  • Ancient Armenia-icon.png Ancient Armeniaball - Vassal.
  • Byzantine-icon.png Byzantineball - Orthodox Successor. Unfortunatly he does not like Latine. He also did not liked when I called that guy named Jesus a hippie.
  • HRE-icon.png Holy Roman Empireball - "Latine" Successor BUT HE IS OF GERMANOS!!!
  • Christian-icon.png Christianityball - The only reason why Ego legalized tu because Ego saw that hippie in my dreams. Such ironia how it was me who crucified him
  • Hellenism-icon.png Hellenismball - Tu helped shaped me into the Mighty Imperium that Ego known of but Ego thought it was tempus to pick a novus Christian-icon.png religion.
  • Ethiopia-icon Cube.png Kingdom of Aksumball - Jewish brothers. Great trading partners in which he is probably is the best African brother other than ancient Egypt. You can remove the anti-semetic the scum named Nubia! I know its! Solomon stronk!

Enemies

  • Germania-icon.png Germaniaball - Filthy, barbaric immigrants. How dare tu defeat me!
    • Germany-icon.png Germanyball - How darings tu harass my sons with yuor economic policies and yuor barbaric EU-icon.png empire? Also guess who he’s descended from
  • Ptolemaic Egypt-icon.png Ptolemaic Egyptball: EGO DEFEATED TU! HA!
  • Etruscan-icon.png Etruscanball - Raped our Lucretia.
  • Kush-icon.png Kushball - REMOVE NUMBAINS FORM EGYPTIAN PREMISISS!! I PRAY FOR THE ASKUMS JEWS TO KILL YOU!!!
  • Gaul-icon.png Gaulball - Barbarians
  • Dacia-icon.png Daciaball - Stupidus heretics and the worst enemy EVER. ROMANIA IS OF LATIN NO DACIAN!!! AND NEVER RISE AS AN EMPIRE AGAIN! AND NEVER FORGET THE FIRST DACIAN WAR,WHEN I LOST! AND YOU FORCED ME TO PAY YOU TRIBUTE OF 8 MOTHERFUCKING MILLION SESTERCES!THANKS TO MY INCOMPETENT EMPEROR OF DOMITIAN!
  • Parthia-icon.png Parthiaball - My main rival before his successor Sassanid-icon.png Sassanidball came. My disciplined Roman Army will always your weak army, although he defeated me in 2 major battles like in Carrhae(53 B.C) and Nisibis(217).
  • Sassanid-icon.png Sassanidball - Was of meum grandis rival back then.
  • Carthage-icon.png Carthageball - Worst rival ever, Carthago Delenda Est!
  • Seleucid-icon.png Seleucidball - Their incompetent king tried to take my land.
  • Kingdom of Pontus-icon.png Kingdom of Pontusball - Tried to take my land.
  • Parthia-icon.png Parthiaball - Most powerful barbarian known. Defeated my general at 53 AD.
  • Hun-icon.png Xiongnu confederacyball - Actually I do not know much about him. But his sons (Great Seljukball, Ottomansball, Rumball) kılled my son!! HOW DARE YOU!!! YOU DİRTY KEBAB! (I still don't know what is kebab but remove!)
  • Japanese-Empire-icon.png Empire of Japanball - I have bigger Clay Empire than yuo! HAHAHAHAHA! TU CANNOT INTO BIGGER EMPIRE!!!
  • Italian-Empire-icon.png Kingdom of Italy- My great grandson who wanted to reserect me
  • Niigata-icon.png Niigataball - FLAG STEALER!

How to draw

  1. Draw a circle filled with red
  2. Draw SPQR in the middle using gold and add a laurel wreath of the same color
  3. Draw eyes and you're finished
  4. Recommended, but not necessary, draw a galea or a laurel wreath

Gallery

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Polandball Wiki has a gallery of artwork, comics, gifs and videos of SPQRball.

Click here to see it.


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