The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars. Although various regions of Spanish America objected to crown policies that restricted trade and privileged Spanish-born officials over American-born, "there was little interest in outright independence; indeed there was widespread support for the Spanish Central Junta formed to lead the resistance against the French".

These conflicts started in 1809 with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell to the French invasion, in 1810, numerous new juntas appeared across the Spanish domains in the Americas. The conflicts among these colonies and with Spain eventually resulted in a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south to Mexico in the north in the first third of the 19th century. Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish–American War in 1898.

The new republics from the beginning abolished the formal system of racial classification and hierarchy, casta system, the Inquisition, and noble titles. Slavery was not abolished immediately, but ended in all of the new nations within a quarter century. Criollos (those of Spanish descent born in the New World) and mestizos (those of mixed Indian and Spanish blood or culture) replaced Spanish-born appointees in most political offices. Criollos remained at the top of a social structure which retained some of its traditional features culturally, if not legally. For almost a century thereafter, conservatives and liberals fought to reverse or to deepen the social and political changes unleashed by those rebellions.

List of wars and conflicts


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Ancient/Classical (3000 BC - 500 AD) Trojan WarWarring States periodWars of Alexander the GreatPunic WarsSack of Rome
Medieval (500 AD - 1500 AD) Norman conquest of EnglandCrusades (First CrusadeFourth Crusade) • Mongol InvasionPolish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (Battle of Grunwald) • Croatian-Bulgarian wars (Battle of the Bosnian Highlands) • Byzantine–Bulgarian warsByzantine-Ottoman Wars (Fall of Constantinople) • War of the BucketHundred Years War
Early modern (1500 AD - 1870 AD) American Indian Wars (Black Hawk War) • Kazakh-Dzungar WarsNine Years WarThree Hundred and Thirty Five Years' WarSeven Years WarAmerican Revolutionary WarBarbary Wars (First Barbary WarSecond Barbary WarThird Barbary War) • Napoleonic Wars (Peninsular WarSerbian RevolutionFrench Invasion of Russia) • Spanish American wars of independenceUruguayan Civil WarWar of 1812Anglo-Nepalese WarBlack WarOpium WarsAmerican Civil WarArauco WarAustro-Prussian WarFrench intervention in Mexico (Battle of Puebla) • Texas RevolutionMexican-American War (Battle of Mexico City (1847)) • Federal WarHispano-Moroccan WarParaguayan War
Contemporary (1870-2021)
Pre-World War I Era (1870 - 1913) Franco-Prussian WarBoxer RebellionBoer WarsFirst Sino-Japanese WarWar of the PacificThe Congo GenocideFirst Italo-Ethiopian WarAnglo-Zanzibar WarSpanish-American WarHerero and Namaqua GenocideRusso-Japanese WarMexican RevolutionItalo-Turkish WarFirst Balkan WarSecond Balkan War
World War I (1914 - 1918) Western FrontBattle of VerdunEastern FrontMiddle Eastern theatre (Arab RevoltGallipoli Campaign) • Balkans CampaignArmenian GenocideRussian RevolutionSomaliland Campaign
Interwar period (1918 - 1939) Russian Civil WarHungarian–Czechoslovak WarIrish War of IndependencePolish-Soviet War (Battle of Warsaw) • Irish Civil WarPacification of LibyaCristero WarHolodomorChaco WarColombia-Peru WarEmu WarSecond Italo-Ethiopian WarIncident at PetrichSpanish Civil WarTurkish War of Independence
World War II (1937/1939 - 1945) Second Sino-Japanese WarInvasion of PolandWinter WarBattle of the AtlanticWestern Front (Battle of FranceBattle of BritainD-DayOperation Market GardenBattle of the Bulge) • Mediterranean Front (North Africa CampaignItalian invasion of EgyptEcuadorian-Peruvian WarFirst Battle of El AlameinSecond Battle of El Alamein) • Allied invasion of SicilyItalian Civil WarBattle of Monte Cassino) • Eastern Front (Operation BarbarossaBattle of StalingradWarsaw UprisingPrague UprisingBattle of Berlin) • Pacific War (Attack on Pearl HarborBattle of DarwinBattle of MidwayBattle of Iwo JimaAtomic bombings of Hiroshima and NagasakiSoviet-Japanese War)
Cold War (1945 - 1989) Chinese Civil WarGreek Civil WarCuban RevolutionIran crisis of 1946Paraguayan Civil War (1947)Malayan EmergencyArab–Israeli conflictKorean WarMau Mau UprisingEast German uprising of 1953Taiwan Strait CrisisAlgerian WarSudanese Civil WarsVietnam WarHungarian Revolution of 19561959 Tibetan uprisingCentral American crisis (Guatemalan Civil WarNicaraguan RevolutionSalvadoran Civil War) • Congo CrisisPortuguese Colonial WarNorth Yemen Civil WarCuban Missile CrisisRhodesian Bush WarDominican Civil WarIndo-Pakistani War of 1965South African Border WarWarsaw Pact invasion of CzechoslovakiaFootball WarBangladesh Liberation War1973 Chilean coup d'étatEthiopian Civil WarLebanese Civil WarAngolan Civil WarMozambican Civil WarOgaden WarIranian RevolutionChadian-Libyan conflictWestern Sahara conflict (Western Sahara War) • Cambodian-Vietnamese WarSoviet-Afghan WarInternal conflict in Peru (early days)Falklands WarUS invasion of GrenadaRevolutions of 1989
Post-Cold War (1989 - 2021) First Liberian Civil WarRwandan Civil War (Rwandan Genocide) • Gulf WarSierra Leone Civil WarYugoslav Wars (Ten-Day WarCroatian Homeland WarBosnian WarKosovo War2001 Insurgency in MacedoniaInsurgency in the Preševo Valley) • Algerian Civil WarTransnistria WarTajik Civil WarBurundian Civil WarZapatista UprisingFirst Chechen WarNepalese Civil WarFirst Congo WarSecond Congo WarSolomon Islands Civil WarSecond Liberian Civil WarSecond Chechen WarAfghan WarWar on TerrorFirst Ivorian Civil WarIraq WarRusso-Georgian WarBoko Haram insurgencySecond Ivorian Civil WarArab Spring (Libyan Civil War of 2011Syrian Civil WarYemeni Revolution) • Crisis in VenezuelaCAR civil warCold War II (War in Donbas2017–18 North Korea crisis) • Yemeni Civil War (2015-present)Kumanovo clashesNicaragua Protests (2018-present)10 August Romanian Protests2019-2020 Hong Kong protests2019 Chile Protests2020 Nagorno-Karabakh WarTigray Military Intervention2020-2021 Belarusian protests2021 storming of the United States Capitol2021 Russian Protests2021 Myanmar protests
Regional conflicts Rif WarInternal conflict in MyanmarArab–Israeli conflictColombian ConflictIndo-Pakistani WarsTaiwan Strait CrisisIran-Israel proxy conflictIran-Saudi Arabia proxy conflictKurdish-Turkish ConflictXinjiang ConflictBasque conflictInternal conflict in PeruMexican Drug WarSri Lankan Civil WarThe TroublesWestern Sahara conflictBougainville Civil WarTigray Military Intervention
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